Flora and Fauna

Wildlife observation is a popular activity for visitors to Ivy Creek Natural Area (ICNA) and a focus of many of the programs offered here. This page contains a variety of guides to plants and animals both known and expected to be found at ICNA and vicinity.

Guides

Butterflies of the Ivy Creek Natural Area – by size and color (pdf)
Butterfly Food – Host Plants for Caterpillars (pdf)
Common Ferns of the Ivy Creek Natural Area (pdf)
All 35 of the dragonflies and damselflies as of July 2016 (pdf)
Hawks (Buteos) from underneath as they migrate over Afton Mountain (pdf)
Landscaping for Wildlife at the Ivy Creek Natural Area (pdf)
Mosses and Liverworts of the Ivy Creek Natural Area (pdf)

Vascular Flora

Flora of Ivy Creek
Alphabetical List of Ivy Creek
Common Name List of Ivy Creek

compiled by Thomas Wieboldt, 1980 | revised by Charles Stevens, 1989 | Timothy Williams, 1995 | Tom Dierauf and Tim Williams, 2010

  • Trees, Shrubs and Vines
    bass

    Class Angiospermea

    Aceraceae Maple Family
    Acer rubum Red Maple
    Acer negundo Box Elder
    Anacardiaceae Sumac (Cashew) Family
    Rhus copallina Winged Sumac
    Rhus glabra Smooth Sumac
    Rhus radicans Poison Ivy
    Annonaceae Custard-Apple Family
    Asimina triloba Pawpaw
    Aquifoliaceae Holly Family
    Ilex opaca American Holly
    Ilex verticillata Winterberry
    Betulaceae Birch Family
    Alnus serrulata Smooth Alder
    Betula lenta Black Birch
    Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam
    Corylus americana Hazelnut
    Ostrya virginiana Hophornbeam
       
    Bignoniaceae  
    Campsis radicans Trumpet Creeper
    Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle Family
    Lonicera japonica Japanese Honeysuckle
    Sambucus canadensis Elderberry
    Viburnum acerifolium Maple-leaved Viburnum
    Viburnum prunifolium Blackhaw
    Viburnum dentatum Southern Arrowwood
    Viburnum nudum Possum Haw
    Celastraceae Bittersweet Family
    Celastrus orbiculatus European Bittersweet
    Euonymus americanus Strawberry Bush
    Convolvulaceae Morning-Glory Family
    Cuscuta gronovii Common Dodder
    Ipomoea pandurata Wild Potato Vine
    Ipomoea purpurea Morning Glory
    Cornaceae Dogwood Family
    Cornus ammomum Silky Dogwood
    Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood
    Ebenaceae Ebony Family
    Diospyros virginiana Persimmon
    Eleagnaceae Oleaster Family
    Eleagnus umbellata Autumn Olive
    Ericaceae Heath Family
    Gaylussacia baccata Huckleberry
    Kalmia latifolia Mountain Laurel
    Rhododendron periclymenoides Wild Azalea
    Vaccinium stamineum Deerberry
    Vaccinium pallidum Lowbush Blueberry
    Fabaceae Legume / Pea Family
    Cercis canadensis Redbud
    Gleditisia triacanthos Honey Locust
    Robinia Pseudo-acacia Black Locust
    Fagaceae Beech Family
    Castanea dentata American Chestnut
    Castanea pumila Chinquapin
    Fagus grandifolia Beech
    Quercus alba White Oak
    Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak
    Quercus falcata Southern Red Oak
    Quercus prinus Chestnut Oak
    Quercus rubra Red Oak
    Quercus Stellata Post Oak
    Quercus velutina Black Oak
    Hamamelidaceae Witch-hazel Family
    Hamamelis virginiana Witch Hazel
    Juglandaceae Walnut Family
    Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory
    Carya glabra Pignut Hickory
    Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory
    Carya tomentosa Mockernut Hickory
    Juglans nigra Black Walnut
    Lauraceae Laurel Family
    Lindera benzoin Spicebush
    Sassafras albidum Sassafras
    Magnoliaceae Magnolia Family
    Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar
    Moraceae Mulberry Family
    Morus rubra Red Mulberry
    Morus alba White Mulberry
    Nyssaceae Tupelo Family
    Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum
    Oleaceae Olive Family
    Chionanthus virginicus Fringetree
    Fraxinus americana White Ash
    Ligustrum sinense Privet
    Passifloraceae Passion Flower Family
    Passiflora lutea Yellow Passion-flower
    Platanaceae Sycamore Family
    Platanus occidentalis Sycamore
    Rhamnaceae Buckthorn Family
    Ceanothus americanus New Jersey Tea
    Rhamnus caroliniana Carolina Buckthorn
    Rosaceae Rose Family
    Amelanchier arborea Common Serviceberry
    Amelanchier canadensis Shadbush
    Crataegus uniflora Hawthorn
    Prunus avium Sweet Cherry
    Prunus serotina Black Cherry
    Pyrus communis Pear
    Pyrus malus Apple
    Rosa carolina Carolina Rose
    Rubus argutus Blackberry
    Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry
    Spiraea betulifolia Spireae
    Rubiaceae Madder Family
    Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush
    Salicaceae Willow Family
    Populus grandidentata Bigtooth Aspen
    Salix nigra Black Willow
    Saxifragaceae Saxifrage Family
    Hydrangea arborescens Wild Hydrangea
    Scrophulariaceae Figwort (Snapdragon) Family
    Paulownia tomentosa Princess Tree
    Simaroubaceae Ailanthus Family
    Ailanthus altissima Paradise (Tree of Heaven)
    Ulmaceae Elm Family
    Celtis occidentalis Hackberry
  • Conifers
    Pinecone

    Class Gymnospermae

    Cupressaceae Cedar Family
    Juniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedar
       
    Pinaceae Pine Family
    Pinus echinata Shortleaf Pine
    Pinus rigida Pitch Pine
    Pinus strobus White Pine
    Pinus virginiana Virginia Pine
    Tsuga canadensis Hemlock
  • Flowering Plants
    Violet

    Class Angiospermea

    (Seasons: sp = spring, s = summer, f = fall, w = winter)

    Monocotyledons
    Subclass monocotyledoneae

    Season    
      Alismataceae Water Plantain Family
    S Alisma subcordatum Water Plantain
    S Sagittaria latifolia Arrowhead
      Araceae Arum Family
    S Acorus calmus Sweetflag
    Sp Arisaema triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit
    S Peltandra virginica Arrow Arum
      Commelinaceae  
    S Murdannia keisak Aneilema
    S-F Commelina communis Asiatic Dayflower
      Cyperaceae Sedge Family
    Sp-S Carex albicans  
    Sp-S Carex amphibola  
    Sp-S Carex blanda  
    Sp-S Carex cephalophora  
    S Carex complanata  
      Carex crinita  
    Sp-S Carex debilis  
    Sp Carex digitalis  
    Sp-S Carex festucacea  
    Sp-S Carex frankii  
    Sp-S Carex intumescens  
    Sp-S Carex laxiculmis  
    Sp-S Carex lurida  
    Sp Carex nigromarginata  
    Sp Carex pensylvanica  
    Sp-S Carex platyphylla  
      Carex prasina  
    Sp-S Carex rosea  
      Carex scabrata  
    S Carex stipata  
    Sp-S Carex swanii  
    Sp-S Carex tribuloides  
    Sp Carex umbellata  
    Sp-S Carex virescens  
    Sp-S Carex vulpinoidea Foxtail Sedge
    S Cyperus crythrorhizos  
    S Cyperus echinatus  
    S Cyperus flavescens  
    S Cyperus lupulinus  
    S Cyperus strigosus Umbrella Sedge
    S Cyperus tenuifolius  
    S Eleocharis obtusa Common Spike Rush
    S-F Scirpus cyperinus Wool Grass
    S Scirpus polyphyllus Many-leaved Bullrush
    S Scirpus validus Great Bullrush
    S-F Scleria triglomerata Nut Rush
      Dioscoreaceae Yam Family
    Sp-S Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam
      Iridaceae Iris Family
    Sp-S Sisyrinchium angustifolium Blue-eyed Grass
    S Belamcanda chinensis Blackberry Lily
      Juncaceae Rush Family
    S Juncus effusus Common Rush
    S Juncus subcaudatus Rush
    S Juncus tenuis Path Rush
    S Luzula echinata Woodrush
      Lilaceae Lily Family
    S Allium vineale Field Garlic
    Sp-S Chamaelirium luteum Blazing Star
    S Hemerocallis fulva Daylily
    Sp-S Medeola virginiana Indian Cucumber Root
    Sp Muscari atlanticum Grape Hyacinth
    Sp-S Polygonatum biflorum True Solomon’s Seal
    Sp-S Smilacina racemosa False Solomon’s Seal
    S Smilax glauca Catbrier
    S Smilax rotundifolia Catbrier
    Sp Uvularia perfoliata Bellflower
      Orchidaceae Orchid Family
    Sp-S Aplectrum hyemale Adam-and-Eve Orchid (Puttyroot)
    S-F Corallorhiza odontorhiza Autumn Coralroot
    S Goodyera pubescens Rattlesnake Plantain
    Sp-S Isotria verticillata Whorled Pogonia
    Sp-S Liparis liliifolia Large Twayblade
    Sp Orchis spectabilis Showy Orchis
    S-F Spiranthes cernua Nodding Ladies’ Tresses
    S-F Spiranthes gracilis Slender Ladies Tresses
    S Tipularia discolor Cranefly Orchid
      Poaceae Grass Family
    Sp-S Agrostis gigantea Redtop
    S-F Agrostis perennans Autumn Bent
    S-F Andropogon scoparius Little Bluestem
    S-F Andropogon ternacius a Broom Sedge
    S-F Andropogon virginicus Broom Sedge
    Sp-S Anthoxanthum odoratum Sweet Vernal Grass
    S-F Arthraxon hispidus  
    S Brachyeltrum erectum Long Arm Wool Grass
    S Bromus japonicus Japanese Broom Grass
    S Bromus racemosus Hairy Chess
    S-F Cinna arundinacea Wood Reed
    S Dactylis glomerata Orchard Grass
    S Danthonia spicata Poverty Oatgrass
      Dichanthelium boscii Panic Grass
    S Dichanthelium clandestinum Deertongue Grass
      Dichanthelium commutatum Panic Grass
      Dichanthelium depauperatum  
    S Dichanthelium dichotomum Bushy Panic Grass
    S Dichanthelium lanuginosum Hairy Panic Grass
    S Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon Many-flowered Panic Grass
    S-F Digitaria sanguinalis Crab Grass
    S-F Echinochloa crusgalli Urchin Grass
    S-F Eleusine indica Goose Grass
    S Elymus riparius a wild Rye Grass
    S Elymus villosus a wild Rye Grass
    S Eragrostis spectabilis Purple Lovegrass
    F Erianthus Alopecuroides Plumegrass
    S Festuca elatior Meadow Fescue
    S Festuca obtusa Fescue
    S Festuca octoflora Six-weeks Fescue
    S Glyceria striata Fowl Mannagrass
    S-F Leersia oryzoides Rice Cutgrass
    S Leersia virginica White Grass
    S Lolium perenne Perennial Rye Grass
      Microstegium vimineum Japanese Grass
    S-F Muhlenbergia schreberi Nimble Will
    S-F Panicum anceps Flat-stemmed Panic Grass
      Panicum depauperatum Panic Grass
    S-F Panicum dichotomiflorum Spreading Witch Grass
    S-F Panicum rigidulum Tall Flat Panic Grass
    S Paspalum laeve Smooth Papalum
    S Phalaris arundinacea Reed Canary Grass
    S Phleum pratense Timothy
    Sp-S Poa annua Annual Bluegrass
    S Poa compressa Canada Bluegrass
    Sp Poa cuspidata Short-leaved Bluegrass
    Sp-S Poa pratensis Kentucky Bluegrass
    S Setaria faberi Faber’s Foxtail
      Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass
      Sphenopholis nitida a grass
    S Tridens flavus Grease Grass; Purple Top
      Pontederiaceae Pickerelweed Family
    S Heteranthera reniformis Mud Plantain
      Sparganiaceae Bur Reed Family
    S Sparganium americanum American Bur Reed
      Typhaceae Cattail Family
    S Typha latifolia Cattail

    Dicotyledons
    Subclass Dicotyledoneae

    Season    
      Acanthaceae Acanthus Family
    S Justicia americana Water Willow
    S Ruellia caroliniensis Wild Petunia
      Amaranthaceae Amaranthus Family
    S Amaranthus spinosus Spiny Amaranthus
      Apiaceae Parsley Family
    S-F Angelica venenosa Hairy Angelica
    S Cicuta maculata Poison Water Hemlock
    S Cryptotaenia canadensis Honewort
    S Daucus carota Queen Anne’s Lace
    S Osmorhiiza claytoni Hairy Sweet Cicely
    S Sanicula canadensis Black Snakeroot
      Apocynaceae Dogbane Family
    S Apocynum androsaemifolium Spreading Dogbane
      Araliaceae Gensing Family
    Sp Aralia nudicaulis Wild Sarsaparilla
    S Aralia racemosa American Spikenard
      Aristolochiaceae Birthwort Family
    Sp Asarum canadense Canada Wild Ginger
    Sp Hexastylis virginica Evergreen Wild Ginger
      Asclepiadaceae Milkweed Family
    S Asclepias amplexicaulis Clasping Milkweed
    S Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed
    Sp-S Asclepias syriaca Common Milkweed
    S-F Asclepias verticillata Whorled Milkweed
    S Asclepias viridiflora Green-flowered Milkweed
      Asteraceae Composite Family
    S-F Achillea millefolium Yarrow
    S-F Ageratina altissima White Snakeroot
    S-F Ambrosia artemisiifolia Ragweed
    S-F Ambrosia trifida Giant Ragweed
    Sp Antennaria plantaginifolia Pussytoes
    S-F Arctium minus Burdock
    F Aster cordifolius Blue Wood Aster
    S-F Aster divaricatus White Wood Aster
    F Aster lateriflorus Starved Aster
    S-F Aster puniceus Purple-stemmed Aster
    F Aster vimineus Small Wood Aster
    S-F Bidens bipinnata Spanish Needles
    F Bidens cernua Nodding Beggar-Ticks
    S-F Bidens frondosa Beggar-Ticks
    F Bidens tripartita Beggar-Ticks
    S-F Carduus lanceolata Common Thistle
    S-F Centaurea maculosa Spotted Knapweed
    S Chondrilla juncea Skeletonweed
    S-F Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Ox-eye Daisy
    Sp-S Chrysogonum virginianum Golden Star
    S-F Cichorium intybus Chicory
    S-F Cirsium discolor Field Thistle
    S-F Cirsium pumilum Pasture Thistle
    S-F Cirsium vulgare Bull Thistle
      Coreopsis verticillata Whorled Tickseed
    S-F Eclipta alba Yerba de Tado
    S Elephantopus carolinianus Elephant’s foot
    S-F Erichtites hieracifolia Fireweed
    S Erigeron annuus Daisy Fleabane
    S-F Erigeron canadensis Horseweed
    S Erigeron strigosus Daisy Fleabane
    S-F Eupatoriadelphus fistulosus Common Joe-Pye-Weed
    S-F Eupatorium album White Throughwort
    S-F Eupatorium perfoliatum Boneset
    S-F Galinsoga quadriradiata Devil’s Delight
    S-F Gnaphalium obtusifolium Rabbit Tobacco
    S-F Gnaphalium purpureum Purplish Cudweed
    F Helianthus strumosus Pale-leaved Sunflower
    S-F Heterotheca mariana Golden Aster
    Sp-S Hieracium caespitosum Field Hawkweed
    S Hieracium paniculatum Woodland Hawkweed
    Sp Hieracium pilosella Mouse-ear Hawkweed
    S-F Hieracium venosum Rattlesnake Weed
    S-F Pyrrhopappus carolinianus False Dandelion
    S Rudbeckia hirta Black-eyed Susan
    S Rudbeckia laciniata Tall Coneflower
    Sp-S Senecio anonymus Ragwort
    Sp Senecio aureus Golden Ragwort
    S-F Sericocarpus asteroides Toothed White-topped Aster
    F Solidago bicolor Silverrod
    S-F Solidago caesia Wreath Goldenrod
    F Solidago canadensis Tall Goldenrod
    F Solidago erecta Slender Goldenrod
    F Solidago gigantea Late Goldenrod
      Solidago nemoralis Oldfield Goldenrod
    F Solidago odora Sweet Goldenrod
    Sp-F Taraxacum officinale Dandelion
    S-F Tragopogon pratensis Yellow Goatsbeard
    S-F Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem
      Verbesina occidentalis Crown-beard
    S-F Vernonia noveboracensis New York Ironweed
      Balsaminaceae Jewelweed Family
    S-F Impatiens capensis Jewelweed
      Berberidaceae Barberry Family
    Sp Podophyllum peltatum May Apple; Mandrake
      Boraginaceae Borage Family
    Sp Lithospermum arvense Corn Gromwell
    Sp Mertensia virginica Virginia Bluebells
      Brassicaceae Mustard Family
    Sp Arabadopsis thaliana Mouse-ear Cress
    Sp Arabis canadensis Sicklepod
    Sp Barbarea vulgaris Winter Cress
    Sp Brassica rapa Turnip
    Sp Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse
    Sp Cardamine hirsuta Hairy Bittercress
    Sp-S Cardamine pensylvanica Pennsylvania Bittercress
    Sp Lepidium campestre Field Cress
    Sp-S Lepidium virginicum Peppergrass
    S-F Rorippa palustris March Yellow Cress
    Sp-S Sisymbrium altissumum Tumble Mustard
    Sp-S Thlaspi arvense Field Pennycress
      Callitrichaceae  
      Callitriche heterophylla Larger Water Starwort
      Campanulaceae Bluebell Family
    F Lobelia cardinalis Cardinal Flower
    S-F Lobelia inflata Indian Tobacco
    S Lobelia spicata Spiked Lobelia
    S Triodanis perfoliata Venus’ Looking Glass
      Caryophyllaceae Pink Family
    S Dianthus armeria Deptford Pink
    Sp Holosteum umbellatum Jagged Chickweed
    Sp-S Scleranthus annuus Knawel
    S Silene antirrhina Sleepy Catchfly
    Sp-S Silene caroliniana Wild Pink
    Sp-F Stellaria media Common Chickweed
    Sp-S Stellaria pubera Giant Chickweed
      Chenopodiaceae Goosefoot Family
    S-F Chenopodium album Lamb’s Quarters
    S-F Chenopodium ambrosioides Mexican Tea
      Cistaceae Rockrose Family
    S Lechea racemulosa Pinweed
      Ericaeae Heath Family
    S Chimaphila maculata Striped (or Spotted) Wintergreen
    S Chimaphila umbellata Pipsissewa
    Sp Epigaea repens Trailing Arbutus
    Sp-S Lyonia ligustrina Maleberry
    S-F Monotropa hypopithys Pinesap
    S Monotropa uniflora Indian Pipe
    S Pyrola rotundifolia American Wintergreen
      Euphorbiaceae Spurge Family
    S-F Acalypha rhomboidea Three-seeded Mercury
    S Euphorbia corollata Flowering Spurge
    S-F Euphorbia maculata Eyebane
      Fabaceae Pea Family
    S-F Amphicarpa bracteata Hog-Peanut
    S-F Apios americana Groundnut
    S Cassia chamaecrista Partridge Pea
    S Cassia marilandica Wild Senna
    S Clitoria mariana Butterfly Pea
    S-F Desmodium canescens Tick-trefoil
    S-F Desmodium nudiflorum Tick-trefoil
    S-F Desmodium paniculatum Tick-trefoil
    S-F Desmodium rotundifolium Prostrate Tick-trefoil
    S-F Lespedeza cuneata Sericea
    S-F Lespedeza hirta Hairy Bushclover
    S-F Lespedeza procumbens Trailing Bushclover
    S-F Lespedeza repens Creeping Bushclover
    S-F Lespedeza striata Japan Bushclover
    S Medicago sativa Alfalfa
    S Melilotus alba White Sweetclover
    S Tephrosia virginiana Goat’s Rue
    Sp-F Trifolium arvense Rabbitsfoot Clover
    Sp-F Trifolium campestre Low Hop Clover
    S-F Trifolium dubium Least Hop Clover
    Sp-F Trifolium pratense Red Clover
    Sp-S Vicia satvia Common Vetch
    Sp-F Trifolium repens White Clover
    Sp-S Wisteria sinensis Wisteria
      Fumariaceae Fumitory Family
    Sp-S Corydalis flavula Yellow Corydalis
      Geraniaceae Geranium Family
    Sp-F Erodium cicutarium Storksbill
    Sp-F Geranium carolinianum Carolina Crane’s Bill
    Sp Geranium maculatum Wild Geranium
      Gentianaceae  
    S Sabatia angularis Rose Pink
      Hypericaceae St. Johnswort Family
    S Hypericum hypericoides Pineweed
    S Hypericum mutilum Dwarf St. Johnswort
    S Hypericum perforatum Common St. Johnswort
    S Hypericum punctatum Spotted St. Johnswort
      Lamiaceae Mint Family
    S Collinsonia canadensis Horse Balm
    S Cunila origanoides Dittany
    S Hedeoma pulegioides American Pennyroyal
    Sp Lamium amplexicaule Henbit
    Sp Lamium purpureum Purple Dead Nettle
    S Lycopus virginicus Virginia Bugleweed
      Mentha piperita Peppermint
    S Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot
    S Monarda punctata Horsemint
    S Nepeta cataria Catnip
    S Perilla frutescens Beefsteak Plant
    S Prunella vulgaris Heal-All
    S Pycanthemum tenuifolium Narrow-leaved Mountain Mint
    Sp Salvia lyrata Lyre-leaved Sage
    S Satureja vulgaris Basil
    S Scutellaria elliptica Hairy Skullcap
    S Scutellaria integrifolia Hyssop Skullcap
    S-F Scutellaria lateriflora Mad-dog Skullcap
    Sp-S Scutellaria serrata Showy Skullcap
    S Trichostema dichotomum Blue Curls
      Linaceae Flax Family
    S Linum virginianum Yellow Flax
      Loranthaceae Mistletoe Family
    F Phoradendron serotinum Mistletoe
      Malvaceae Mallow Family
    Sp-F Malva neglecta Common Mallow
    S-F Abutilon theophrasti Pie-print; Velvetleaf
      Onagraceae Evening Primrose Family
    S Circaea lutetiana Enchanter’s Nightshade
    S Epilobium coloratum Purple-leaved Willow-herb
    S Ludwigia alternifolia Seedbox
    S-F Ludwigia decurrens Primrose Willow
    S-F Ludwigia palustris Marsh Purslane
    S Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose
      Orobancaceae Broomrape Family
    Sp-S Conophosis americana Squawroot
      Epifagus virginiana Beech Drops
      Oxalidaceae Wood Sorrel Family
    Sp-F Oxalis dillenii Upright Yellow Wood Sorrel
    Sp-S Oxalis violacea Violet Wood Sorrel
      Papaveraceae Poppy Family
    Sp Sanguinaria canadensis Bloodroot
      Phrymaceae Lopseed Family
    S Phryma leptostachya Lopseed
      Phytolaccaceae Pokeweed Family
    S Phytolacca americana Pokeweed
      Plantaginaceae Plantain Family
    Sp Plantago aristata Bracted Plantain
    Sp-F Plantago lanceolata Narrow-leaved Plantain
    Sp-F Plantago virginica Dwarf Plantain
      Polygonaceae Buckwheat Family
    Sp-F Polygonum arifolium Halberd-leaved Tearthumb
    S-F Polygonum aviculare Knotweed
    S-F Polygonum cespitosum Asiatic Water Pepper
    S-F Polygonum hydropiper Common Smartweed
    S-F Polygonum pensylvanicum Pennsylvania Smartweed
    S-F Polygonum persicaria Lady’s Thumb
    S-F Polygonum punctatum Water Smartweed
    S-F Polygonum sagittatum Arrowleaf Tearthumb
    S-F Polygonum virginiana Virginia Knotweed
    Sp-F Rumex acetosella Sheep Sorrel
      Primulaceae Primrose Family
    S Lysimachia ciliata Fringed Loosestrife
    Sp-S Lysimachia quadrifolia Whorled Loosestrife
      Ranunculaceae Buttercup Family
    S Anemone virginiana Thimbleweed
    Sp Anemonella thalictroides Rue Anemone
    S Cimifuga racemosa Black Cohosh
    Sp Hepatica americana Hepatica
    Sp-S Ranunculus abortivus Kidney-leaved Buttercup
    Sp-S Ranunculus bulbosus Common Buttercup
    Sp-S Thalictrum revolutum Meadowrue
      Rosaceae Rose Family
    Sp-S Alchemilla microcarpa A winter annual
    Sp-S Aruncus dioicus Goatsbeard
    Sp-S Duchesnia indica Indian Strawberry
    Sp-S Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry
    S Geum canadense White Avens
    Sp-S Gillenia trifoliatus Indian Physic
    Sp-F Potentilla canadensis Canada Cinquefoil
    S Potentilla norvegica Rough Cinquefoil
    S Potentilla recta Upright Cinquefoil
      Rubiaceae Madder Family
    S Diodia teres Rough Buttonweed
    Sp-S Galium aparine Cleavers
    Sp-S Galium circaezans Wild Licorice
    S Galium pilosum Hairy Bedstraw
    Sp-S Galium tinctorium Clayton’s Bedstraw
    Sp-S Galium triflorum Sweet-scented Bedstraw
    Sp Houstonia caerulea Bluets
    Sp-S Houstonia longifolia Long-leaved Summer Bluets
    Sp-S Houstonia purpurea Large Summer Bluets
    S Mitchella repens Partridgeberry
      Saxifragaceae Saxifrage Family
    Sp Chrysosplenium americanum Golden Saxifrage
    Sp-S Heuchera americana Alum Root
    S Penthorum sedoides Ditch Stonecrop
    Sp Saxifraga virginiensis Early Saxifrage
      Scrophulariaceae Figwort Family
    S Aureolaria flava Smooth yellow Foxglove
    S-F Chelone glabra Turtlehead
    S-F Gratiola neglecta Clammy Hedge Hyssop
    S-F Linaria vulgaris Butter-and-Eggs
    S Mimulus ringens Common Monkeyflower
    S Scrophularia marilandica Maryland Figwort
    S Verbascum thapsus Common Mullein
    Sp-S Veronica arvensis Corn Speedwell
    Sp-S Veronica officinialis Common Speedwell
    Sp-F Veronica persica Persian Speedwell
      Solanaceae Nightshade Family
    S-F Datura stramonium Jimson Weed
    S Solanum carolinense Horsenettle
      Urticaceae Nettle Family
    S Bochmeia cylindrica False Nettle
    S-F Pilea pumila Clearweed
      Valerianaceae Valerian Family
    S Valerianella locusta Blue Corn Salad
    Sp Valerianella olitoria Corn Salad
      Verbenaceae Vervain Family
    S Verbena urticifolia White Vervain
      Violaceae Violet Family
    Sp Viola palmata Common Blue Violet
    Sp Viola pedata Bird’s-foot Violet
    Sp Viola rafinesquii Field Pansy
      Vitacea Vine Family
    S Parthenocissus quinquifolia Virginia Creeper
    Sp-S Vitis labrusca Fox Grape
    Sp-S Vitis riparia Riverbank Grape
    Sp-S Vitis vulpina Winter Grape
    S Rumex crispus Curly Dock
  • Non-Flowering Plants
    bass

    FERNS

    Ophioglossaceae Adder’s Tongue Fam.
    Botrychium dissectum Grapefern
    Botrychium virginianum Rattlesnake fern
    Ophioglossum vulgatum Adder’s-tongue fern
    Osmundaceae Royal Fern Family
    Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon fern
    Osmunda claytoniana Interrupted fern
    Polypodiaceae  
    Adiantum pedatum Maidenhair fern
    Asplenium platyneuron Ebony Spleenwort
    Asplenium rhizophyllum Walking fern
    Athyrium asplenioides Southern lady fern
    Athyrium thelypteroides Silvery spleenwort
    Dennstaedtia punctilobula Hay-scented fern
    Dryopteris intermedia Intermediate woodfern
    Dryopteris marginalis Marginal woodfern
    Dryopteris spinulosa Spinulose woodfern
    Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive fern
    Phegopteris hexagonoptera Broad beech fern
    Polypodium virginianum Common polypody
    Polystichum acrasticoides Christmas fern
    Pteridium aquilinum Bracken fern
    Thelypteris noveboracensis New York fern
    Woodsia obtusa Blunt-lobed woodsia

    FERN ALLIES

    Lycopodiaceae Clubmoss Family
    Lycopodium digitatum Running Cedar
    Lycopodium lucidulum Ground Pine
    Lycopodium obscurum Tree club-moss
    Selaginellaceae Spikemoss Family
    Selaginella apoda Meadow Spikemoss
  • Native Grasses

    From the Osage Hills of Oklahoma to the sandhills of Nebraska, Big Bluestem is the dominant plant in the tallgrass prairie. But Big Bluestem is not indigenous to the Great Plains. Its origin was in the successional grasslands of the eastern states until largely replaced by farmers with bluegrass and introduced fescue which are ideally suited to the pasturing of European cattle. These latter grasses are cool-season grasses, that is, they start growing early in the year, providing good grazing so that cattle can gain marketable weight more rapidly.

    Big Bluestem, along with Indian Grass and Little Bluestem, which have been reseeded at Ivy Creek, are warm-season grasses. These species do not begin growing until the time of summer rains and do not flower until summer is almost over.

    Warm season grasses are well-adapted to drought and fire. They have an obligatory symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizal fungi which grow into their root cells and expand through the soil increasing the zone of influence of the fibrous root system, facilitating water and nutrient uptake. More importantly they have an auxiliary photosynthetic system that is not found in the cool-season grasses, allowing them to store carbon dioxide from the air in an organic compound during the heat of the day when it closes the pores in its leaves to conserve water. As summer rains decrease and the threat of fire increases, warm season grasses transfer organic compounds from their leaves to storage in the root system, sequestering them from loss in a fire.

    Indeed, the management of warm-season grasslands is by periodic fire rather than mowing in that woody plants with their growing tissue at the tips of the branches are killed by the fire while warm season grasses remain as secure as b’re rabbit in the briar patch.

    Big Bluestem
    Andropogon gerardii

    Sometimes called the King of native grasses, Big Bluestem can grow up to eight feet tall with long thin flowers radiating from the top of the stem, thus its common name of “turkey foot”. It displays an array of color throughout the summer and fall, from steel gray-blue in the summer to brown, red and purple in the fall. Root systems extending 12 feet down give the plant an extraordinary capacity to withstand drought and extreme temperature.

    Big Bluestem by Eli Sagor

    Little Bluestem
    Schizachyrium scoparium

    Little Bluestem is an unfortunate name for this striking grass because it is neither little not particularly blue — except when the shoots come up in early summer. By the time it flowers, it has turned a rich mixture of tan and brown with wine-red branches. Probably the most abundant native grass and known as an old-field invader, Little Bluestem is also an excellent forage plant.

    Little Bluestem

    Indian Grass
    Sorghastrum nutans

    Competing with Big Bluestem for height, Indian Grass is distinctive for the small twisted bristles on its slightly fuzzy, late summer flowers. The inflorescence is tall and narrow and turns a shining golden brown. The fruit, six to 10 inches long, appears as copper-colored plumes, making this a very attractive plant.

    Indian Grass

    Broomsedge
    Andropogon virginicus

    A common grass at Ivy Creek, Broomsedgea is very coarse and turns a beautiful bronze-orange in the winter. It is leafier than other grasses and the flower stalk, surrounded by silvery white hairs, is tucked inside the leaves. Although the plant is not good livestock forage, it has long been the backbone of Virginia quail habitat.

    Broomsedge Grass by Forest and Kim Starr

Fauna

  • Fish
    bass

    Nearly two miles of Rivanna Reservoir shoreline border ICNA, providing excellent fish habitat. The sunfish family, which includes bass, crappie, and bluegill, is the most easily observed group. Sunfish prefer to spawn in the warm shallow water of inlets, where the males scoop out nests in the mud to attract females, then stand guard over the eggs and young. Creek chub, blacknose dace, and rosyside dace are common in Martin’s Branch, a creek bisecting ICNA southwest of the barn. Larger game fish have been introduced into the deeper waters of the reservoir.

    Because fish populations fluctuate dramatically, up-to-date records are difficult to maintain. The following is a list of the most commonly encountered species in the reservoir and Martin’s Branch.

    Reservoir

    Largemouth Bass
    Walleye
    Common Shiner
    Bluegill
    Northern Pike
    Common Carp
    Pumpkinseed

    White Catfish
    Carpsucker
    Redear Sunfish
    Channel Catfish
    White Sucker
    Redbreast Sunfish
    Brown Bullhead

    Shorthead Redhorse
    Black Crappie
    Yellow Bullhead
    Spottail Shiner
    White Crappie
    Golden Shiner
    Quilback Sucker

    Martin's Branch

    Blacknose Dace
    Mountain Redbelly Dace
    Torrent Sucker
    Rosyside Dace
    Creek Chub

  • Amphibians
    amphibians

    Ancestors of reptiles, birds and mammals, ampihibians were the first land-dwelling vertebrates. Most species lay gelatinous eggs in or near water where the larvae undergo an aquatic stage before transformation to more terrestrial adults. Amphibians are carnivorous and will eat whatever moves and is small enough to swallow (primarily insects and worms). Larger prey is taken by some, including the bullfrog which can ingest ducklings and small mammals nearly its own size.

    Amphibians cannot internally control their body temperature; therefore they must seek shelter during winter. Many prefer underground burrows or rotting logs; some remain underwater or nestle in mud, absorbing oxygen through their skin. Mass movements to breeding sites often occur with the first warm rains of late winter and early spring.

    Salamanders

    Prefer moist environs; seepy areas, underside of logs, rocks. Voiceless — depend on chemical secretions to initiate courtship. Most species are nocturnal.

    Spotted Salamander - woods
    Marbled Salamander - variety
    Red-spotted Newt - ponds. lake, woods
    Dusky Salamander - springs, wooded streams
    Seal Salamander -springs, wooded streams
    Red-backed Salamander - woods

    Slimy Salamander - woods
    Spring Salamander- springs, cool streams
    Red Salamander - springs, cool streams
    Two-lined Salamander - streams, woods
    Long-tailed Salamander - streams, shale banks

    Frogs and Toads

    Keen hearing and strong voices aid in courtship. Usually found near water. Activity peaks in evening.

    Eastern Spadefoot Toad - loose soil, sandy areas
    American Toad - variety
    Fowler’s Toad - variety
    Northern Cricket Frog - grassy, wet areas
    Gray Treefrog - trees, shrubs

    Spring Peeper - wooded wet areas
    Upland Chorus Frog - variety of wet areas
    Bullfrog - ponds, lakes
    Green Frog - ponds, lakes, ditches
    Pickerel Frog - ponds

  • Reptiles
    snake

    Although often found near water, many reptiles are adapted to life on dry land. They have well-developed lungs and their skin is covered with scales or plates. Most reptiles lay large leathery eggs in concealed nests. Some, including eight snake species at ICNA, have live-born young. Unlike amphibians, young reptiles resemble their parents from birth and do not undergo a separate larval stage. Reptiles are cold-blooded; therefore are inactive during winter.

    Opportunities for encountering turtles, lizards, and snakes at the Natural Area are plentiful. Patience and respect for these shy animals often yield rewarding insights into their intriguing lifestyles.

    Turtles

    Durable and long-lived. Eat a wide variety of plant and animal matter. Many species spend winter buried in mud of pond and lake bottoms — take in dissolved oxygen through mouth and anus.

    Snapping Turtle - ponds, lakes, streams
    Musk Turtle (Stinkpot) - ponds, lakes, streams
    Eastern Mud Turtle - ponds, marshes, ditches
    Eastern Box Turtle - woodlands, edges
    River Cooter - rivers, lakes
    Painted Turtle - shallows of ponds, lakes

    Lizards

    Well-developed legs, clawed toes. Eat mostly insects, spiders, worms. For defense, tails of many species break off easily (but soon grow back). Winter underground or in rotting logs.

    Fence Lizard - sun; fences, stumps
    Six-lined Racerunner - open woods, fields, rocks
    Ground Skink - woodland floor
    Five-lined Skink - stumps, rocks, foundations
    Broadhead Skink - variety, often in trees

    Snakes

    All snakes are carnivorous. With the aid of highly flexible jaws, they can ingest relatively large prey and go for long periods between meals. Many species are terrestrial; others prefer water and some, such as the black rat snake, spend considerable time in trees. Although keenly able to sense vibration, snakes are deaf. Their tongue flicking behavior is not a threat, but a means of “sniffing” the air for food or danger. Most snakes hide by day, prowl by night, and spend the winter underground or in deep rock crevices. Snakes are timid and retreating by nature; those that bite will do so only if provoked.

    Northern Water Snake* - edge of quiet waters
    Queen Snake* - near water
    Redbelly Snake* - open woods
    Brown Snake* - moist woods
    Garter Snake* - variety
    Ribbon Snake* - wet areas, streamsides
    Smooth Earth Snake* - open woods, edges
    Eastern Hognose Snake - variety; sandy areas
    Southeastern Crowned Snake - pine woods
    Worm Snake
    variety, often burrows
    Ringneck Snake
    variety, prefers woods

    Rough Green Snake
    often in trees, shrubs
    Black Racer
    meadows, brushy areas
    Black Rat Snake
    woods, fields, buildings
    Corn Snake
    variety, often in burrows
    Eastern Milk Snake - woods, meadows
    Mole Kingsnake - woods, fields, burrows
    Eastern Kingsnake - woods, fields, water edge
    Copperhead* - variety

    * ovoviviparous: do not lay eggs, instead eggs hatch within the mother and she gives birth to live young.
    Copperheads are the only poisonous snakes at ICNA.

  • Mammals
    Mammals

    Because they tend to be secretive and nocturnal, mammals are not easily observed. More often their signs are seen: tracks, burrows, scat, and feeding evidence. Characteristics of mammals include hair, well-developed teeth, and milk glands for nursing their young. Mammals have the ability (along with birds) to internally regulate body temperature which allows many to remain active year-round and to inhabit harsh environments. During extreme cold, some species “hole up” in dens or burrows. Other hibernate underground the entire winter. Some bat species migrate to warmer areas.

    Most mammals possess keen senses, especially hearing and smell. Quietly walking the trails in early morning or evening provides the best opportunity for an encounter.

    Pouched Mammals (Marsupials)

    Newly born embryos crawl into their mother’s abdominal pouch to continue development.

    Opossum - variety, prefer woods

    Shrews and Moles (Insectivores)

    Most have sensitive pointed snouts. Fierce predators of worms and grubs — eat constantly. Utilize tunnels, either underground or through dead grass and leaves.
    Southeastern Shrew - damp fields, lowland woods
    Pygmy Shrew (very rare) - woodlands
    N. Short-tailed Shrew - variety
    Least Shrew - open areas, grassy fields
    Eastern Mole - well-drained soil
    Star-nosed Mole - moist fields, woods

     

    Bats

    Capable of sustained flight — catch insects in the air. Nocturnal; navigate by echolocation. Bats are not blind, aggressive, or rabies-infested; nor do they get tangled in human hair. Commonly seen at ICNA at dusk during warmer months.

    Little Brown Myotis - near water
    Keen’s Myotis - heavily wooded areas
    Silver-haired Bat - near water
    Eastern Pipistrelle - variety
    Big Brown Bat - often in buildings
    Red Bat - near water, open fields
    Hoary Bat - coniferous forests
    Evening Bat - woodlands

    Gnawing Mammals

    Incisors grow constantly — kept in check by gnawing. Most are nocturnal and herbivorous. Variety of habitats — underground to treetops.

    Eastern Chipmunk* - woods, edges
    Woodchuck (Groundhog)* - open areas — fields, banks
    Gray Squirrel - woods — thick understory
    Red Squirrel - woods — hemlock, spruce
    Southern Flying Squirrel - mature woods
    Beaver - lakes, streams, bottomland
    Eastern Harvest Mouse - oil fields, tall grass
    White-footed Mouse - hardwood forest, brush

    Golden Mouse - arboreal — woods, thickets
    Hispid Cotton Rat - grassy, weedy fields
    Eastern Woodrat - woodlands
    Meadow Vole - damp meadows, orchards
    Woodland Vole - woods, old fields
    Muskrat - marshes, ponds, lakes
    Black Rat - buildings, fields
    Norway Rat - buildings, fields, burrows
    House Mouse - buildings, fields, fencerows
    Meadow Jumping Mouse - moist fields, streambanks

    * may hibernate during winter

    NOTE: True hibernation entails a state of deep sleep with greatly reduced metabolism. Hibernators may become active during warm spells.

    Rabbits and Hares

    Prolific breeders; important prey species for many animals. Herbivorous; diurnal. Use burrows of other animals for shelter — do not dig their own. Cottontail has small home range, usually an acre or two.

    Eastern Cottontail - fields, edges

    Hoofed Mammals

    Foot bones are fused — walk on “tip-toes”. Herbivorous — complex stomachs digest food through several stages. Deer are commonly seen at ICNA in fields near the barn.

    White-tailed Deer - fields, woods

    Meat-eating Mammals (Carnivores)

    Adapted for hunting and killing prey. Strong teeth and claws. Keen sense of smell and hearing; most are nocturnal and far ranging.

    Red Fox - woods, fields, edges
    Gray Fox - woods, edges
    Raccoon - streams, marshes, woods
    Long-tailed Weasel - brushes, edges, woods
    Mink - streams, riverbanks, swamps
    Striped Skunk - variety, prefers uplands
    Black Bear* - wilderness

    * occasionally reported at Ivy Creek Natural Area (bear track from Peninsula Trail, September 1996)

  • Birds
    Birds Due to their high visibility and vocal antics, birds are the most readily encountered form of wildlife. A variety of quality habitat contributes to an impressive number and diversity of birds at ICNA. Many are resident year-round.

    All birds are warm-blooded, lay eggs, and have feathers for insulation and (for most) flight. Because of their high metabolism, they spend considerable time hunting food. It is not uncommon for some species to ingest a third or more of their body weight each day. Beaks are a good indicator of food preference — short and thick for cracking seeds (finches); long and thin to probe for insects (warblers); sharp and hooked for tearing flesh (hawks).

    When advertising for mates or defending territory, birds utilize intriguing methods of attracting attention. Many have developed elaborate songs. Some dance, fake injury, grunt, or bang on trees, the ground, buildings, and each other. Observing bird behavior adds much to the pleasure of birdwatching.

    Note: Seasons and habitats for the following list have been generalized — many variations occur. (Seasons: sp = spring, s = summer, f = fall, w = winter)

    COMMON NAME SEASON HABITAT
    Loons
    Common Loon
    f, sp water
    Grebes
    Pied-billed Grebe
    f, w, sp water
    Herons
    American Bittern
    Great Blue Heron
    Great Egret
    Little Blue Heron
    Cattle Egret
    Green-backed Heron*
    sp, s
    all
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp
    sp, s, f
    water
    water
    water
    water
    field, water
    water
    Swans, Geese, Ducks
    Tundra Swan
    Canada Goose*
    Wood Duck*
    Green-winged Teal
    Black Duck
    Mallard*
    Northern Pintail
    Blue-winged Teal
    American Wigeon
    Canvasback
    Redhead
    Ring-necked Duck
    Lesser Scaup
    Common Goldeneye
    Bufflehead
    Hooded Merganser
    Common Merganser
    Red-breasted Merganser
    Ruddy Duck
    f, w
    all
    all
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    all
    f, w, sp
    sp, f
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    sp
    f, w, sp
    sky, water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    water
    Vultures
    Black Vulture*
    Turkey Vulture*
    all
    all
    sky
    sky
    Osprey, Hawks, Eagles
    Osprey
    Bald Eagle
    Golden Eagle
    Northern Harrier
    Sharp-shinned Hawk
    Cooper’s Hawk*
    Red-shouldered Hawk*
    Broad-winged Hawk
    Red-tailed Hawk*
    f, sp
    f, w, sp
    f,w
    f, w, sp
    all
    all
    all
    sp, f
    all
    water, sky
    sky
    sky
    field, sky
    sky
    sky
    sky
    sky
    sky
    Falcons
    American Kestrel*
    all sky
    Turkey, Quail
    Wild Turkey*
    N. Bobwhite Quail*
    all
    all
    field, woods
    field, edge
    Rails, Coot
    Sora
    American Coot
    sp, f
    f, w, sp
    water edge
    water
    Plovers
    Semipalmated Plover
    Killdeer*
    sp
    all
    water edge
    water edge
    Gulls
    Bonaparte’s Gull
    Ring-billed Gull
    Herring Gull
    sp
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    water, sky
    water, sky
    water, sky
    Sandpipers
    Greater Yellowlegs
    Lesser Yellowlegs
    Solitary Sandpiper
    Spotted Sandpiper
    Semipalmated Sandpiper
    Least Sandpiper
    Pectoral Sandpiper
    Common Snipe
    American Woodcock*
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    f, w, sp
    all
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    water edge
    woods, field
    Doves, Pigeon
    Rock Dove (pigeon)*
    Mourning Dove*
    all
    all
    barn
    edge, field
    Cuckoos
    Yellow-billed Cuckoo*
    Black-billed Cuckoo
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    Owls
    Barn Owl*
    Eastern Screech-Owl*
    Barred Owl*
    Great-horned Owl*
    all
    all
    all
    all
    field, edge
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    Nightjars
    Common Nighthawk*
    Whip-poor-will*
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sky
    field
    Swifts
    Chimney Swift*
    sp, s, f sky
    Hummingbirds
    Ruby-throated *
    sp, s, f field, edge
    Kingfishers
    Belted Kingfisher*
    all water
    Woodpeckers
    Red-headed Woodpecker
    Red-bellied Woodpecker*
    Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    Downy Woodpecker*
    Hairy Woodpecker*
    Northern Flicker*
    Pileated Woodpecker*
    all
    all
    f, w, sp
    all
    all
    all
    all
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    Flycatchers
    Eastern Wood Pewee*
    Acadian Flycatcher*
    Eastern Phoebe*
    Great Crested Flycatcher*
    Eastern Kingbird*
    sp, s, f
    sp, s
    all
    sp, s
    sp, s
    edge, woods
    near water
    edge
    woods
    edge
    Larks
    Horned Lark*
    all field
    Swallows
    Purple Martin*
    Tree Swallow*
    Northern Rough-winged
    Bank Swallow
    Cliff Swallow
    Barn Swallow*
    sp, s
    sp, s, f
    sp, s
    sp, f
    sp, s
    sp, s, f
    sky, field
    sky, water
    sky, water
    sky, water
    sky
    sky, field
    Crows, Jays
    American Crow*
    Fish Crow*
    Raven
    Blue Jay*
    all
    all
    all
    all
    edge, field
    edge
    sky
    edge, woods
    Chickadees, Titmice
    Carolina Chickadee*
    Tufted Titmouse*
    all
    all
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    Nuthatches
    White-breasted Nuthatch*
    Red-breasted Nuthatch
    all
    f, w, sp
    woods, edge
    woods
    Creepers
    Brown Creeper
    f, w, sp woods
    Wrens
    Carolina Wren*
    Winter Wren
    House Wren*
    Marsh Wren
    all
    f, w, sp
    all
    sp, f
    edge, woods
    edge, woods
    edge
    water
    Thrushes
    Golden-crowned Kinglet
    Ruby-crowned Kinglet
    Blue-gray Gnatcatcher*
    Eastern Bluebird*
    Veery
    Gray-cheeked Thrush
    Swainson’s Thrush
    Hermit Thrush
    Wood Thrush*
    American Robin*
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    sp, s, f
    all
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    f, w, sp
    sp, s, f
    all
    edge, woods
    edge
    edge, woods
    field, edge
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    woods
    field
    Mockingbirds, Thrashers
    Northern Mockingbird*
    Brown Thrasher*
    Gray Catbird*
    all
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    edge
    edge
    edge
    Pipits
    Water Pipit
    f, w, sp field
    Waxwings
    Cedar Waxwing
    f, w, sp edge
    Shrikes
    Loggerhead Shrike
    all edge
    Starlings
    European Starling*
    all field, edge
    Vireos
    Red-eyed Vireo*
    Solitary Vireo
    White-eyed Vireo*
    Yellow-throated Vireo*
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    edge
    woods, edge
    Warblers, Sparrows, Blackbirds, Etc.
    Blue-winged Warbler
    Tennessee Warbler
    Nashville Warbler
    Northern Parula Warbler*
    Yellow Warbler*
    Chestnut-sided Warbler
    Magnolia Warbler
    Cape May Warbler
    Black-throated Blue
    Black-throated Green.
    Yellow-rumped Warbler
    Blackburnian Warbler
    Yellow-throated Warbler*
    Pine Warbler*
    Prairie Warbler*
    Palm Warbler
    Bay-breasted Warbler
    Blackpoll Warbler
    Cerulean Warbler
    Black-and-white Warbler*
    American Redstart*
    Worm-eating Warbler*
    Ovenbird*
    Northern Waterthrush
    Louisiana Waterthrush*
    Kentucky Warbler
    Common Yellowthroat*
    Hooded Warbler*
    Wilson’s Warbler
    Canada Warbler
    Yellow-breasted Chat*
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    f, w, sp
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, f
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    edge
    woods
    woods, edge
    woods, water
    edge
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    woods, edge
    woods
    woods, edge
    woods
    water’s edge
    pine trees
    edge
    woods, edge
    woods
    woods, edge
    woods
    woods
    edge, woods
    woods
    woods
    near water
    ravines, water
    woods
    edge
    woods, edge
    edge
    woods, edge
    edge
    Summer Tanager
    Scarlet Tanager*
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    woods
    woods
    Northern Cardinal (male, female)*
    Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    Blue Grosbeak*
    Indigo Bunting*
    Rufous-sided Towhee*
    Dark-eyed Junco
    all
    sp, f
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    all
    f, w, sp
    edge
    woods
    edge
    edge
    edge
    edge, woods
    Chipping Sparrow*
    Field Sparrow*
    Vesper Sparrow
    Savannah Sparrow
    Grasshopper Sparrow*
    Fox Sparrow
    Song Sparrow*
    Swamp Sparrow
    Lincoln’s Sparrow
    White-throated Sparrow
    White-crowned Sparrow
    sp, s, f
    all
    sp, f
    f, w, sp
    sp, s, f
    f, w
    all
    f, w, sp
    sp, f
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    edge, field
    edge, field
    edge, field
    edge, field
    field
    edge, field
    edge, field
    water edge
    edge
    edge
    edge
    Bobolink
    Eastern Meadowlark*
    Red-winged Blackbird*
    Rusty Blackbird
    Common Grackle*
    sp, f,
    all
    all
    f, w, sp
    all
    field
    field
    near water
    edge, field
    edge, field
    Brown-headed Cowbird*
    Northern Oriole*
    Orchard Oriole*
    all
    sp, s, f
    sp, s, f
    edge, field
    edge
    edge
    Weavers
    House Sparrow*
    all edge, bldgs
    Finches
    Purple Finch
    House Finch*
    American Goldfinch*
    Pine Siskin
    Evening Grosbeak
    f, w, sp
    all
    all
    f, w, sp
    f, w, sp
    edge, woods
    edge, field
    edge, field
    edge, field
    edge, feeders